At least a dozen Somali Refugees have dead on the Malaria cases in Andhra Pradhesh,Karnataka,Kolkata/calcutta and Maharashtra the representatives of the Central Somali Community are reporting that the Malaria diseases affected to the Refugees and spreading speedily.also the Indian Hospitals are confirming that the diseases and many citizens dying on Malaria cases from July 2014 and the Refugees are among them the deaths,they didn’t receive a proper treatment it’s very expensive and all of them are under registration of the mandate of the UNHCR and Refugees are becoming garbage,wastage and using for practical in their body some times.Malaria is a disease of the blood that is transmitted to people by an infected female mosquito. Malaria infects and destroys red blood cells (anemia) and clogs the capillaries that carry blood to the brain (cerebral malaria) or to the vital organs.
According to the latest estimates, released in December 2013, there were about 207 million cases of malaria in 2012 (with an uncertainty range of 135 million to 287 million) and an estimated 627 000 deaths (with an uncertainty range of 473 000 to 789 000). Malaria mortality rates have fallen by 42% globally since 2000, and by 49% in the WHO African Region.
Most deaths occur among children living in Africa where a child dies every minute from malaria. Malaria mortality rates among children in Africa have been reduced by an estimated 54% since 2000.
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes, called “malaria vectors”, which bite mainly between dusk and dawn and There are four parasite species that cause malaria in humans:Plasmodium falciparum,Plasmodium vivax,Plasmodium malariae,Plasmodium ovale,Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most common. Plasmodium falciparum is the most deadly.In recent years, some human cases of malaria have also occurred with Plasmodium knowlesi – a species that causes malaria among monkeys and occurs in certain forested areas of South-East Asia.
Malaria is transmitted exclusively through the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. The intensity of transmission depends on factors related to the parasite, the vector, the human host, and the environment.
About 20 different Anopheles species are locally important around the world. All of the important vector species bite at night. Anopheles mosquitoes breed in water and each species has its own breeding preference; for example some prefer shallow collections of fresh water, such as puddles, rice fields, and hoof prints. Transmission is more intense in places where the mosquito lifespan is longer (so that the parasite has time to complete its development inside the mosquito) and where it prefers to bite humans rather than other animals. For example,the long lifespan and strong human-biting habit of the African vector species is the main reason why about 90% of the world’s malaria deaths are in Africa.
Transmission also depends on climatic conditions that may affect the number and survival of mosquitoes, such as rainfall patterns, temperature and humidity. In many places, transmission is seasonal, with the peak during and just after the rainy season. Malaria epidemics can occur when climate and other conditions suddenly favour transmission in areas where people have little or no immunity to malaria. They can also occur when people with low immunity move into areas with intense malaria transmission, for instance to find work, or as refugees.
Human immunity is another important factor, especially among adults in areas of moderate or intense transmission conditions. Partial immunity is developed over years of exposure, and while it never provides complete protection, it does reduce the risk that malaria infection will cause severe disease. For this reason, most malaria deaths in Africa occur in young children, whereas in areas with less transmission and low immunity, all age groups are at risk.
How Malaria Spreads:
Malaria is a serious, sometimes fatal disease that’s spread through the bite of an infected mosquito.Travellers might not believe they’re at risk for malaria because they don’t know they are visiting a malaria-endemic country or region.
However, mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite are found throughout the world including large areas of Central and South America, Africa, India, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. About 50% of the world’s population live in areas at risk for malaria.
In fact, you can be exposed to malaria even when staying at top-rated resorts or with friends and relatives.in other words Malaria is a vector-borne disease; this means that it has to be spread through a “vector” species, which in this case are female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. The female mosquito needs to feed on blood in order to produce eggs; most species lay eggs every 2-3 days, which means each female mosquito needs to take very regular blood meals.
Around 20 species of Anopheles mosquito have been implicated in the transmission of malaria; some species are better than others at acting as a vector. The most important group in Africa is the Anopheles gambiae complex; these mosquitoes are also relatively long-lived, which is important for transmission since it means that whole portions of the malaria parasite’s life cycle can be completed inside the vector mosquito.
When the female mosquito takes a blood meal, she inserts her slender mouth part (called a ‘proboscis’) into a tiny cut she makes uses specialized slicing parts of her mouth. She probes until she finds a small surface blood vessel, from which she feeds. The proboscis contains two narrow tubes – one delivers her own saliva into the wound (containing chemicals to stop the blood coagulating as well as a slight pain-killer, to stop you feeling the bite) while the other sucks up blood.
The mosquito’s saliva also contains the malaria parasite; this is how the parasite is delivered into the human body. Similarly, the parasite passes back into the mosquito through the blood she ingests, once the human portion of the life cycle has been completed. As mosquitoes pass between human to human, and indeed also between other animals, they spread the malaria parasite through the delivery of saliva and the uptake of blood.
Who is at risk ?
Malaria occurs in Africa, Central and South America, parts of the Caribbean, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the South Pacific and People spending time outdoors, including sleeping outside, are at higher risk for malaria. Every year about 1500 cases of malaria and 5 deaths occur among international travelers from the United States and always kills our weak groups in the society for instance Woman,Children and Old age and others are on the way and the reason is the World Refugees with out real protection of Humanity.
Prevent mosquito bites:
The person should all kind of protection,prevention and Ending mosquito bits and the items as such as: Wear mosquito repellent,Consider an all-natural solution,Wear loose, long-sleeved shirts and long pants when outdoors,Don’t waste money on an electric hanging bug (zapper),Sleep with a mosquito net over your bed,but unfortunately the most of the Refugees are havn’t and they can’t able to buy it because they are always under straggling of their daily life whether in Africa or Asia also the Refugees in thialand are similarly affected the malaria disease as links below:
When the Humanitarian Corruption will end in South Asia and where is Humanity in India?were World Humanitarian Aid goes?
By:Kassim Isse Dhuhulow (Mr.blackgold),
Freelance Journalist and Advocate for Somali Community in India,